- What is a McCulloch and Pitts Neural Network?
- How do we model this artificial neural network using Gel?
What is a McCulloch and Pitts Neural Network?
While originally designed to model real neurons in the brain, artificial neural networks have been an on-again off-again topic in machine learning. As new artificial intelligence systems are designed to drive cars, beat games, and cator to changing customer needs; artificial neural network is one of many AI methods to receive a resurgence of interest. Visualizing and simulating these neural networks may help AI researchers fine tune this complex system when answering real world questions.
The simplest neural network model was proposed by McCulloch and Pitts in 1943 and is explained as follows:
Each neuron acts as a binary threshold unit. More specifically, a neuron computes a weighted sum of its inputs from other neurons, outputing 1 or 0 depending on if that sum is above or below a particular threshold.
The terms , , , and represents the input neuron, output neuron, current neural net layer, and propagation weight from input to output neuron respectively.
How do we model this artificial neural network using Gel?
The artificial neural network, like other networks, have a set of nodes and links. These nodes and links have a set of their corresponding attributes. For each node, we have a current sum variable, a temperary sum variable, and a threshold value. We may also choose to record the layer of the neuron in the overall network, although this is not required for the computation.
node(string id, int layer, float threshold, float sum, float temp) nt;
We will be using the foreach link statement to propagate and compute each value of the neural network. Each link will be directional, going from to and will have a propagation weight value. The value can be positive (excitatory) or negative (inhibitory).
link<float weight> lt; /* the < > symbols defines a directional link */
We have provided a small neural network file called neuralnet.txt to load into Mango. Right-click and download from here
From Mango, use File/Open to open neuralnet.txt in the editor window. This will also set the neuralnet.txt location as your current directlry.
Create a new gel script file by typing Ctrl+N on Windows or Linux or Cmd+N on Mac. Copy the following commands into your gel script file. Press Ctrl+S or Cmd+S to save your script.
Highlight all commands and press Ctrl+Return (Windows or Linux) or Cmd+Enter (Mac) to execute the commands and load in the neural network.
node(string id, int layer, float threshold, float sum, float temp) nt; link<float weight> lt; graph(nt,lt) nn=import("neuralnet.txt",",");
In order to visualize the network, double click on nn in the data panel. A new panel should show up in the graph canvas area. First we are going to layout the network in 2D having earlier neural nodes on the left and later layers on the right.
foreach node in nn set _x=-2+layer,_y=rand(-4,4),_z=0;
We may want to turn on the names and change the colors of the network.
foreach node in nn set _r=0.5,_text=name.":".sum; foreach link in nn set _text=weight;
For now we are going to randomly assign weights to the edges.
foreach link in nn set weight=rand(0,1), _text=weight;
In order to start the input, we are going to randomly assign the input sum values.
foreach node in nn where layer==1 set sum=floor(rand(0,2));
Now we can start to propagate the neural network signal.
foreach node in nn set temp=0; foreach link in nn set temp+=weight*in.sum; foreach link in nn where temp>=threshold set sum=1; foreach link in nn where temp<threshold set sum=0;
Now we can color the nodes by which ones propagated a signal and which one did not.
foreach node in nn set _r=0,_g=sum,_b=0,_text=name.":".sum;